In order to properly talk about the how and why our universe actually came into existence I need to define some new words. In turn I will try and define what is meant by terms such as dark energy from the point of view of my own conceptual model.
Let us start with naming the undefined star like object outside the confines of our own universe whose nova produces two output jets, each its own universe. There is no word in the human language, that I know of, to describe such an object.
There is a tradition in astronomy whereby types of stellar objects are named after those scientists that first discovered or postulated their existence. For example, a Thorne-Zyktow object is a red giant or supergiant that contains a neutron star at its core. Named after Kip Thorne and Anna Zytkow who were the first people to conjecture the existence of such an object.
It is this tradition, that I wish to call my conjectured star like object a MacLean.
MacLean (noun) : A star like object whose diameter could be between two hundred and fifty to sixteen hundred (250-1600) million light years across that exists outside the confines of our universe. The nova of a MacLean star results in a Big Bang event bringing forth a pair of universality jets.
It was either that or call it a “McBoaty-McBoat-Face”. But it doesn’t quite have the same ring. In the beginning before time was time there was the McBoaty-McBoat-Face and God moved upon the face of the McBoaty-McBoat-Face. Let us give praise and sing hymn number 666, “Oh Lord, How much a shit hole can I dig for myself?”
With that defined, I can now make the statement “When a MacLean comes to the end of its life and goes nova, it releases a pair jets from its poles, each the twin verse of the other.”
In this statement I talk about verses, as in universe or multi-verse, But what exactly do I mean by a verse? Our universe is one jet from a MacLean going nova, is what I mean. Nothing more, nothing less. Matter that is confined to the jet is inside our universe otherwise it is outside the boundaries of the existence we can directly observe.
I showed this picture earlier. In effect it can be viewed as the cross-section through jet at the moment in time light first started transversing our existence about 300,000 years after the Big Bang event. It is the light, stretched to microwaves by the expansion of spacetime, that is to us the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. From an initial jet of incompressible matter in constant rotation about the central axis it has broken up into a series of concentric rings off inviscid irrotational flow.
Looking at the octopole map, of the CMB from WMAP, we see six significant lobes of temperature variation. The solid line marks the elliptic plane of Earth which is unusually aligned to the lobes. The dashed line is the super-galactic plane. This anisotropy is what in the popular press, at the time of its discovery, is known as the Axis of Evil and which has subsequently been reproduced in the Planck mission.
The S-map of the octopole map shows twelve anisotropic lobes, six hot and six cold. Although I will go and in to much greater depth later I wanted to show these maps so you could see the basis for my reasoning in drawing these lines. Or why I have drawn a hexagon in the outer most ring and a pair of hexagons in the inner most ring.
Inspired by Dmitri Mendeleev’s invention of the periodic table coupled with this circular representation of the standard model describing supersymmetry I rendered this picture of everything that is my model. Dirac when he first wrote his equation of the electron didn’t believe at first the predictive power of his equation. The existence of anti-matter, as predicted by his wave equation, was a prime case in point.
I know exactly where he is coming from. The more I have mediated upon this picture of everything the more I understand everything as mysteries answer themselves. Let me show you the grand beauty of nature in a fractal universe.
Returning to the basic philosophy of fractal geometry and that self-similar patterns repeat themselves at any scale. What in nature is a mirror image to this cross-section through our jet? Namely, I am looking for a pattern which is the top of a hexagonal storm whose interior is composed of a series of concentric ringed vortices of irrotational flow. Between having the initial thought about this pattern and finding it was 24 hours.
Sitting bolt right up in bed screaming “It’s the south pole of Saturn!”, one morning was yet another Eureka moment for me. One, of so many!
Nature speaks with a truthful voice far greater than any human can ever put forth. Welcome to our fractal universe mirrored here in our own solar system upon the most stunning of planets. I would say Saturn is the most beautiful world in our solar system with the exception of Earth. For only here on Earth does living self-conscious thought exist, brighter than any nova, capable of divining the secrets of nature.
This picture of reality, is like Dirac’s equation, to me. I drew it, but the more I meditate upon it the greater my understanding. One meditational thought focuses upon the drawings of Escher, particularly, his piece called ‘Relativity’.
But in coming back to definitions I can define the boundary extent of our universe. Though I am arriving at a conclusion that is given better voice by Susskind’s and colleagues holographic principle and E8 emergence theory. In short, the edge of our universe is the event horizon of a black hole. Although in trying to understand the concept is like having a serious discussion about philosophy while being hung upside down, thinking that up is down and down is up. Its all mater of relative prospectus!
But for the moment, in my discussion, it is sufficient to say that there is a physical edge to the universe and this is shown as the third concentric ring out. A solid barrier of invisible matter from which light cannot escape.
This third concentric ring of matter we do not see echoed on the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation because we are literally inside it caught between it and the ring of matter that forms the leptons. This space between the third and second rings is for us our observable universe. So anything outside the inner circle of this third concentric ring is beyond our sight of the observable universe, as it has fallen down a black hole. Extrapolating my reasoning I place the particle for gravity upon our side of the ring for it is to us a black hole.
Any object or structure such as a MacLean type star is outside this third concentric ring. So when I say “The MacLean is outside the confines of our verse” I mean that it is outside this third concentric ring behind a solid mass that we cannot see through.
So let us for a moment step outside the confines of our verse into a galaxy of MacLean type stars. As the volume of the jet, that is our verse, expands out into the higher temporal void galaxy of MacLean stars it may hit one of these stars. And for the exact same reason and dynamics as why water flows around a stone lying on a riverbed so too does the jet, that is our verse, flow around the Maclean star.
So what effect does this have on our verse? How do we see it? Well for starters we do not see it. It is hidden behind the wall of matter that is the outer fabric of our universe. The name we give to the surface of this fabric is spacetime. The warping of spacetime by matter inside our universe giving rise to the gravitational field is what is so beautifully described by Einstein’s theory of general relativity.
Imagine an elastic sheet pulled tight such that both the lines running horizontally are all parallel to each other, and vice versa for the vertical lines. The sheet is initially flat such that the lines on it describe a 2-dimensional Euclidean geometry.
Place a spherical weight, to represent the Earth, on top of the elastic sheet. The force of the weight downwards from the sphere stretches and deforms the sheet on which it is placed. The incline of the plane downwards is an analogue to the gravitational field caused by the weight of the object sitting on top of the fabric. This stretching and deformation of the fabric of spacetime, caused by the mass and weight of the given object, changes the geometry of spacetime. It changes it from flat Euclidean geometry, where parallel lines never meet, to one that is Hyperbolic where lines running parallel to each other come together.
Now we add a smaller body to the fabric, such as the Moon, and again the fabric around the vicinity of the moon is deformed downwards by the weight of the moon. Falling in towards each other the moon orbits the Earth. Or from the relative prospectus of Earth the moon is in constant free fall following the deformed curvature of the fabric of spacetime caused by the mass of the Earth. This in a nutshell is the description of gravity as told by Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.
Let us now reverse the process. Rather we imagine the Earth existing outside the fabric of spacetime, on the other side from us. So rather than dropping the Earth on top of the fabric we throw the Earth upwards from underneath the fabric. The deformation to the fabric now is not down but up instead. That is the inclination of the gravitational plane is no longer downwards but rather is runs upwards. This change in the inclination of the plane of the gravitational field upwards runs counter to the force of gravity or rather what we would call anti-gravity.
With all this said, I can now define a number of important words and definitions with respect to my model.
Rather than constantly saying “our universe that is a jet from the hypernova of a MacLean star” I will use the term jet-a-verse. Meaning a jet-a-verse is one jet, that is paired with a twin, from the nova of a MacLean. The interior of a jet-a-verse is what we would classically call a universe. As there are more MacLeans in existence the idea of multi-jet-a-verses come into play. I dislike using the word multiverse because of how it has been described by superstring theory and wish to avoid confusion. So we have our next definition.
Jet-a-verse (noun) : The physical jet that is ejected from the pole of a MacLean going nova.
The boundary confines of our universe is the outer most layer of the jet-a-verse. To say that something is outside of our universe means that it is outside the volume occupied by the jet-a-verse.
Dark energy is matter that exists outside the boundary confines of our jet-a-verse. Matter inside our jet-a-verse deforms the outer layer outwards and this to us is gravity as described by general relativity. Matter outside of our jet-a-verse inversely pushes inwards on the outer layer and this to us is anti-gravity. So really dark energy is matter outside our own jet-a-verse that has come into contact with the jet. Because it has come into contact the effect is that this matter pushes inwards against the outer confines of our verse. This push inwards is in effect anti-gravity.
And so with this outline drawn I can now sketch out how the Bootes supervoid formed. In short, the spherical volume of the Bootes supervoid, measuring 330 million light years in diameter, is because the volume that is occupied by it comes from a MacLean.
There in the Bootes supervoid exists a sun like object whose volume and mass is so massive that it occupies a sphere whose diameter is 330 million light years.
The scale of the MacLean star is beyond anything that we can ever witness while inside our universe. Our sun has a diameter of 1.39 million kilometres or 1.47e-13 light years across. The distance to our nearest star, aside from our sun, Alpha Centauri is 4.24 light years away or 4e13 kilometres. It would take us around 20,000 years using current rocket technology to reach there.
Our sun is one of around 250 billon stars that make up our galaxy the Milky-way. The diameter of our own galaxy is around 100,000 light years across. That is, light would take 100,000 years to cross the massive expanse of our galaxy from one side to another. Civilisation has only been around for 8,000 years or so.
The Bootes void is 330 million light years across. Imagine being able to place galaxies next to each other to span the diameter of the Bootes supervoid. It would require 3,300 galaxies to span this sphere. The total volume of this supervoid is 0.27% volume of the observable universe. That is the size and shape of the MacLean star like object that exists outside the bounds of our own universe.
So let’s step outside our own universe into the vast temporal void and look back at our jet-a-verse. Following the same pattern of flow as an astrophysical jet does inside our universe so too does the evolution of our jet-a-verse. Initially it is a confined beam at the beginning but as it travels forward it fans out. From inside our universe we experience this spreading out of the jet as the expansion of the fabric of spacetime.
In one region of the jet-a-verse, that has now fanned out, a MacLean star exists. It is directly in the path of travel of our jet-a-verse and will collide with the region of interest. As a stream of water will envelop a stone or as a cloud will envelop a plane flying into it so to does our jet-a-verse.
That is, as the jet moves forward in the higher temporal void hitting the MacLean star in its path it will move around the volume occupied by the MacLean, enveloping it. This is how it is seen from outside our universe. From here, inside our universe, the volume occupied by the MacLean displaces the equivalent volume.
This displacement of volume inside our universe deforms the curvature of spacetime outwards. A galaxy as it approaches the MacLean is pushed away from it as it follows the outward curvature of spacetime running counter to the gradient of gravity. In other words, the dark energy present in the volume of the supervoid pushes the galaxies flowing towards it away and around it because of its anti-gravitational effect.
However the MacLean star like any other star is permeable. That is, some volume that is our jet-a-verse is actually swept up and into the volume occupied by the MacLean entering in along the polar regions of the MacLean. As an analogy it is swept up along the MacLean’s magnetic field lines following the same dynamics that gives rise to the Aurora Borealis here on Earth.
As the MacLean is permeable, like any gaseous body, the vortex mechanics at the poles pulls in the odd galaxy into the volume occupied by the MacLean. This vortex runs the length of the radius down to the core where it is met by another vortex extending from the opposite pole. This twin tornado storm runs the length of the MacLean upon its axis of rotation. It is because it is the axis of rotation of the MacLean that is the cause of this twin vortex. A galaxy caught in this vortex storm would be subjected to various incline changes in the gravity or anti-gravity field from the eddies of this invisible storm.
This then is how the 60 odd galaxies that have been seen in the Bootes supervoid ended up there and why they are located in a tubular region running through its middle. This tubular region is the MacLean’s axis of rotation with its two poles defined at either end. And that is why and how the Bootes supervoid came into existence, as told by the story I tell.